Working independently

Task perception, goal setting and planning, enacting, and adaptation

Even in collaborative work, being able to work independently can be useful for successful collaboration.

The teacher tells you to complete an exercise on your own.

Think about the task you have been given. Think about how to achieve it on your own. Take into account your knowledge then act upon it. Evaluate and reward yourself if you complete the task.

Using nice talk

Approaching and talking to others in a friendly way

Friendship and positive-adult relationships are developed through positive conversational exchanges that reflect the ability to cooperate in play, resolve conflicts and explore feelings and shared experiences. Children who use prosocial skills such as nice talk are more likely to report that they enjoy making and maintaining friendship.

You want to borrow a pen from a friend. You must first approach them and ask nicely using a soft voice.

Approach your friend and ask nicely if you can borrow their pen. Use a soft voice, perhaps a smile and make sure to use the word “please”.

Understanding social cues

Observing and monitoring interactions with others

Observing others to determine how they are feelings is the first step before deciding what to do with this observation (such as showing concerns for others). It teaches how to get information from facial expression, body movement and voice to infer about someone’s emotional state.

Your little sister is rolling around on the floor giggling

To identify feelings and emotions pay attention to the person’s facial expression; look at the person’s eyes, mouth and eyebrows to determine how they are feeling (smiling when happy etc). Body language can also help you determine how someone is feeling (arms crossed when angry etc). Lastly you can listen to the person, their voice tone will also give you clues.

Transfer of Ownership

During play, a player can transfer ownership of an item, action or ability to another player.

During play a player can transfer ownership of an item, action or ability to another player.

Does you game have elements such as resources or abilities which can change ownership?

How is the state of ownership of game elements controlled? Does the system control owenership; controlled rewards, resources acquisitions etc; do players trade between each other; or a hybrid between the two.

Traffic Lights

Encourages pupils to indicate how well they achieved what was expected by the end of a lesson or session.

This simple activity encourages pupils to indicate how well they achieved what was expected by the end of a lesson or session. It might also be used by pupils as a means of expressing how confi dent they are that they know the response to a question which has just been posed by the teacher/facilitator. For the latter, this activity allows an instant assessment of how well a class or group may have grasped an issue or topic. See Fist-to-Five and Thumb Tool for other activities that encourage pupils to think about their learning. Pupils are each given a set of three cards – one with a green circle, one amber and one red. 2. After a session pupils are asked how confi dent they are that they have met the objectives. At this point, pupils choose which circle they are going to show: Green if they are very confi dent that they have achieved the objectives and what was expected; Amber if they feel that they have had partial success in meeting the objectives, but some more work might be needed; and Red if they consider that they have made little or no progress towards meeting the objective.

Choose a particular topic for the activity, perhaps a topic which is relevant to the current subject.

Pupils are given set of three cards – 1 green circle (very confident), 1 amber (partial sucess) and 1 red. Ask pupils to show how confident about the topic they are.


Resources, abilities or other game elements are exchanged between players, either between each other or the system.

Players exchange some kind of Resource, be it information, actions, or game elements, between each other or the game system.

Are their resources of some kind which can be exchanged between players or the game?

What kind of resources can be traded, is there an exchange value? You can motivate trading behaviours by using an asymmetrical distribution reward, stimulating players to trade with each other.


Players come together to form a group or team where they may coordinate their actions in order to reach a mutual goal.

Players in a group or a team coordinate their actions, abilities, and roles in order to reach a common goal.

Does your game have the ability to organise players into groups and provide them mutual goals?

How do your players work together, are you providing mutual goals? Giving players different abilities can motivate them to work together to achieve their goals.

Taking turns

Waiting for your turn before talking or acting

Taking turns is important in collaborative work and this skill should teach the child to look around when it’s his/her turn to talk, think about what he/she will say or do, wait to make sure no one else is talking and finish what he/she is saying/doing before it’s someone else’s turn.

Your brother is watching a TV show and you want to watch a different show.

Be patient, don’t interrupt your brother and wait until they have finished. Once they have finished ask nicely if you can watch your show now that their show has finished.

Staying on task

identifying task and ignoring distraction

Focusing on what you’re doing, avoiding distraction, setting the stage so it’s easier to stay on task (go to a quiet place etc)

It’s snowing outside and your friends ask you to play a game outside but you have homework to do.

Resist distraction (tell your friends you’ll play later), think about what you need to do and why (to get good grades) and do it. You could listen to music which may help you focus on your task.

Solving everyday problems

Identifying problems and finding steps to solve them

To solve problems, a child has to think about what the problem is, think about how to deal with it, select the best option and reflect on what happened for future similar situations

You forgot you had told your friend to meet you at his place and you organised to go shopping with your mum

When your friend arrives, apologise and explain what happened. If your friend is angry try to comfort them, perhaps offer them to come shopping with you and your mum or that they can get a lift home.